Main development direction analysis of instrument2016-12-22
To analyze the main development direction of the instrument, the instrument of domestic and imported continuous development and progress, and continuously improve the development of key technology research, it will be more clear, after all, there is a clear goal, focus on the development direction, to develop toward the direction to continue this. Then we'll analyze.
First of all, under the industrial instrumentation, industrial instrumentation is mainly to be more digital, more intelligent, more networked, with the advent of the development of the Internet era, this is inevitable. For example, intelligent pressure switch must be used instead of mechanical pressure switch intelligent pressure switch one day, though there are still some deficiencies, but many are better than the mechanical pressure switch, more accurate, less error, more seismic, convenient operation, more contact. Now more and more people choose intelligent pressure switch.
Environmental protection instrumentation
Now advocate environmental protection, people's awareness of environmental protection are also improving, environmental protection everywhere, national concern, people are also concerned, so his investment and development are very promising.
Electrician is the detection of some kind of instrument to be more accurate, electric meter life longer, there are some automated intelligent.
Hospital instruments are walking in the forefront of intelligent, digital route, and now instruments are very tall, but certainly will have more advanced. Of course is better, it can cooperate with the medical technology.
There are some other instrumentation here is not to say, anyway, a purpose, instruments are progressive, riding, to stop the progress of the total will be eliminated.
Accurate division of industrial pressure differential pressure controller2016-12-21
Industrial pressure differential pressure controller is very common in modern production operations, in order to facilitate our more reasonable choice, the controller must be clearly classified, so as not to confuse.
The simplest industrial pressure differential pressure controller can be divided into: pressure controller, differential pressure controller, temperature controller, flow controller, level controller these 5 categories:
1 pressure differential pressure is the direct measurement of pressure or pressure, the role of the factor is the pressure inside the device,
2 temperature controller accepts the temperature signal,
3 flow controller is generally aimed at the gas, according to their volume to calculate the pressure value,
4 liquid level controller is generally for liquid, can be calculated with the p=egh (catalytic equipment inside the differential pressure controller set value adjustment case).
Pressure controller is divided into: ordinary pressure controller, explosion-proof pressure controller (flameproof type), dual contact pressure controller.
Differential pressure controller is divided into: ordinary differential pressure controller, explosion-proof differential pressure controller (flameproof type), double contact differential pressure controller.
Summary; industrial pressure differential pressure controller reasonable classification can clearly know how we should better application, Ming move science and technology think it is necessary to ensure normal production.
China's instrumentation industry growth significantly2016-12-21
October 19th National Bureau of statistics data released in the first three quarters, the national industrial added value above scale by comparable price growth of 6.2%. As part of industrial production, China's instrumentation industry is also growing trend.
The first three quarters of 2015, the national scale industrial added value calculated by comparable prices grew by 6.2%, the growth rate down by the first half of 0.1 percentage points. Divided into three categories, the mining industry added value grew by 3.3%, manufacturing grew by 7%, electricity, heat, gas and water production and supply growth of 1.7%. The first three quarters, above scale industrial enterprises production and marketing rate reached 97.5%. Above scale industrial enterprises to achieve export delivery value of 86187 billion yuan, down by 1.1%. September, above scale industrial added value grew 5.7%, growth of $0.38%.
1-8 months, the national industrial enterprises above Designated Size to achieve profit of 37663 billion yuan, down by 1.9%. Above scale industrial enterprises in the main business income per hundred yuan in the cost of 86.13 yuan, the main business income margin of $5.38%.
China's instrumentation industry in the late start of the case, after 20 years of unremitting efforts to become a major producer of common instrumentation, market sales record highs, R & D and production system is also increasingly sound. After rapid development, China's instrument market competition pattern quietly changed.
August 2015 national instrument industry to complete the export delivery value of 10 billion 82 million yuan, an increase of 0.11%. Each sub industry growth rate difference.
2015 1-8 national instrument industry completed export delivery value of 74 billion 430 million yuan, an increase of 4.06%. In addition to drawing, calculation and measuring instruments manufacturing, manufacturing, supply of instruments and other instruments and transportation equipment manufacturing, counting meter and seismic geological exploration instruments, teaching instruments, and nuclear radiation measuring instrument, optical instrument manufacturing industry total growth rate year-on-year fall, other sub sectors are positive growth trend.
August 2015, the instrument industry 2 major product output are down trend, automotive instrumentation output growth fell, reaching negative 3.95%.
1-8 months, the cumulative growth rate of each sub industry differences exist, but showed a growth trend, of which, electrical instrumentation cumulative growth rate reached 11.86%.
1 ~ August, the major industries of the industry, the instrument and meter manufacturing industry to achieve a total profit of 40 billion 700 million yuan, an increase of 5.9%, an increase of $41. From another data point of view, from 1 to August, instrumentation manufacturing main business income of $539 billion 480 million, an increase of 7.1%.
With the rapid development of industry in China, the development of analytical instruments and its industry will become the mainstream. To further expand the very traditional areas, will break the instruments market competition, for the sustainable development of instrumentation industry to inject new vitality and new impetus.
Sensitivity and accuracy2016-12-21
Sensitivity refers to the sensitivity of the instrument to the measured parameters, or the ability to respond to the measured quantity change. It is the ratio of the increment of output change to the increment of input variation under steady state:
Sensitivity is sometimes referred to as "magnification ratio" and also the slope of each point of the instrument static characteristics. Increase the magnification can improve the sensitivity of the instrument, simply increase the sensitivity does not change the basic performance of the instrument, that is, the instrument accuracy has not improved, contrary to the oscillation phenomenon sometimes, resulting in unstable output. Instrument sensitivity shall be maintained at the appropriate amount.
But for the instrument users, such as chemical industry instrument, precision instrument is an important index, but in actual use, often more emphasis on stability and reliability of the instrument, because the chemical enterprise detection and process control instrument for measurement of the number, and a large number is used to detect. In addition, the stability and reliability of the measuring instruments used in the process control system are more important than the precision.
Precision instrument precision, also known as accuracy. Accuracy and error can be said to be twin brothers,
Because of the existence of errors, the concept of precision. Instrument accuracy is simply the accuracy of the measured value of the meter to a true value, usually expressed by a relative percent error (also called relative error).
To improve the instrument accuracy, error analysis is necessary. Errors can be divided into neglect error, slowly varying error, systematic error and random error. Negligence error refers to the measurement process caused by human error, one can be overcome, two and the instrument itself does not matter. The slow change error is caused by the aging process of the internal components of the instrument, which can be overcome and eliminated by changing components, components or by constant correction. System error refers to the repeated measurements of the same measured parameters, the numerical error occurred in size or have the same sign, error or change according to certain rules, but has not yet been recognized in the accident caused by the factors, the magnitude and nature are not fixed, it is difficult to estimate, but it can be estimated influence on the test results from the theory by statistical methods. Error sources mainly refer to systematic error and random error. When the accuracy is expressed by error, the sum of random error and system error.
Any instrument has a certain error. Therefore, the instrument must first know the accuracy of the instrument,
In order to estimate the difference between the measured results and the agreed truth values. The accuracy of the instrument is usually used to allow the maximum error of the reference remove percent (%) after the digital measure.
Analog meter accuracy in general should not use absolute error (and the true value of the difference value measurement) and relative error (absolute error and the true value ratio) to said, because the former does not reflect the reasonable requirements of different instrument, which is easy to cause any instrument can not believe the misunderstanding. For example, for a full range of 100mA current meter, measured in zero current, due to mechanical friction that shows the number of hands slightly deviation from zero and 0.2 mA readings, according to the relative error of the algorithm, then the relative error of the point is infinite, it seems that this instrument is completely unable to use but in the engineering staff, the measurement error that is easy to understand, not worth it one may still get excited over a little thing, the more sophisticated instrument! The reasonable accuracy of the analog instrument shall be measured by the maximum absolute error in the measuring range and the ratio of the measurement range of the instrument to the relative (full-scale) percent error.
According to the instrument industry, the accuracy of the instrument is divided into a number of grades, referred to as precision level, such as 0.1, level 0.2, level 0.5, level 1, level 2.5, etc.. Thus, the smaller the accuracy level, the higher the accuracy.
Glass thermometer, bimetal thermometer, pressure thermometer, thermocouple, thermal resistance,
Non contact thermometer, temperature control (regulator), temperature transmitter, temperature calibration instrument, temperature sensor, temperature tester, etc.;
Human body thermometer, sphygmomanometer;
Pressure gauge: pressure gauge, pressure gauge, pressure transmitter, differential pressure transmitter, pressure calibration instrument, pressure reducer, pressure gauge, pressure automatic control equipment, automatic control equipment, hydraulic pressure sensor;
Flow meter: flowmeter, flow sensor, flow transmitter, water meter, gas meter, liquid level transmitter, liquid level relay, liquid level meter, oil meter, water level meter, liquid level controller, meter;
Electrical instrumentation: current meter, voltage meter, current power frequency, current distribution, test pencil, circuit breakers, contactors, relays, switches, terminals, voltage regulator, voltage monitor, intelligent electric power monitor, voltage regulator, megger, clamp meter, multimeter, electric transducer, current transmitter, ballast and rectifier;
Electronic measuring instruments: LCR meter, level meter, viscometer, oscilloscope, signal generator;
Analytical instruments: chromatography, chromatography accessories, spectrophotometer, moisture meter, balance, thermal analysis instrument, X-ray analysis instrument, spectroscopy, physical properties analysis instrument, photographic instrument, spectrum analyzer;
Optical instruments: spectrophotometer, refractometer, filter, filter, prism, lens, spectrometer, colorimeter, optoelectronics, laser instrument, microscope, telescope, magnifier, Theodolite Level spectrometer;
Industrial automation instrument: control system, regulating valve, regulating instrument, multi-function instrument, heating equipment,
Winding machine, device, intelligent instrument, safety gate, inverter module, paperless recorder, probe, amplifier, acceleration sensor, speed sensor, displacement sensor, speed sensor, current sensor, tension sensor;
Experimental instruments: balance instrument, temperature measuring instruments, laboratory equipment, vacuum calorimeter, incubator, incubator, corrosion test box, hardness tester, drying oven, oven, oscillator, mixer, centrifuge, water (oil) bath, constant temperature water tank;
Measuring gauge, vernier caliper, micrometer, dial indicator, tape;
Measuring instrument: roundness instrument, three coordinate measuring machine, pneumatic instrument;
Actuator: electric actuator, pneumatic actuator;
Instrument special power supply: DC power supply, regulated power supply, AC power supply, switching power supply, uninterruptible power supply, inverter power supply
Display instrument: digital display instrument;
Supply: meter counter, electric meter, thermostat, manostat, and meter reading system;
Universal Instruments: electric heating plate, electric heating sleeve, homogenate machine, distiller, disperser, masher;
Mechanical instrument: thickness gauge, altimeter, force measuring instrument, speed measuring instrument;
Quantitative weighing scales, platform scale, scale, scale, weighing sensor, electronic scale, ground scale, belt scale, hanging scale, batching scale;
Professional testing instrument: wind temperature and air flow meter, temperature and humidity instrument, dust measuring instrument, instrument noise, water quality analysis instrument, pH / pH meter, conductivity meter, polarography, sampler, gas analysis instrument, illuminance meter, sound level meter, dust particle counter, grain oil testing instrument, mercury analyzer;
Test equipment: bending test, tensile testing machine, pressure testing machine, torsion testing machine, impact testing machine, universal testing machine, test box, non metal material testing machine, balancing machine, nondestructive testing instrument, process test machine, stress and deformation tester, auto test equipment, package testing machine, fatigue test machine, strength testing machine, test chamber, vibration table.
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